• Stainless Steel Pipe Weight Formula | Chart Metric | Square Pipe Weight Formula | SS Pipe Dimensions Sizes in OD & Inches | Pressure Rating | Schedule, Wall Thickness | Weight | Tolerances | Properties
  • Stainless Steel Pipe Weight Formula | Chart Metric | Square Pipe Weight Formula

    Pipe Weight Formula In Kg | Plate Weight Formula Metric | Sheet Weight Formula | Tube Weight Formula | Aluminium Weight Formula Kg | Flat Bar Weight Calculator

    Stainless Steel Sheet Weight Calculation Formula, Formula for Calculating SS Pipe Weight, Formula for Calculating SS Bar Weight, Formula for Calculating SS Square Bar Weight, Formula for Calculating SS Hexagonal Bar Weight, Formula for Calculating SS Flat Bar Weight, Formula for Calculating SS Sheet & Plates Weight

    Formula for Calculating SS Circle Weight, Formula for Calculating Brass Pipe/ Copper Pipe Weight, Formula for Calculating Lead Pipe Weight, Formula for Calculating Aluminium Pipe Weight, Formula for Calculating Aluminium Sheet Weight, STEEL PIPE WEIGHT CALCULATOR, STAINLESS STEEL PIPE WEIGHT CALCULATOR

    Stainless Steel Pipe Weight Formula | Chart Metric | Square Pipe Weight Formula


    Stainless Steel Sheet Weight Calculation Formula

    1. Formula for Calculating S. S. Pipe Weight :
       

    0.D. (mm) - W. Thick (mm) X W. Thick (mm) X 0.0248 = Wt. Per Mtr.
    0.D. (mm) - W. Thick (mm) X W. Thick (mm) X 0.00756 = Wt. Per Feet

    Formula for calculating SS Pipe Weight

    2. Formula for Calculating S. S. Bar Weight :
       DIA (mm) X DIA (mm) X 0.00623 = Wt. Per Mtr.
    DIA (mm) X DIA (mm) X 0.0019 = Wt. Per Feet
    Formula for calculating SS Bar Weight

    3. Formula for Calculating S. S. Square Bar Weight :
       DIA (mm) X DIA (mm) X 0.00788 = Wt. Per Mtr.
    DIA (mm) X DIA (mm) X 0.0024 = Wt. Per Feet
    Formula for calculating SS Square Weight

    4. Formula for Calculating S. S. Hexagonal Bar Weight:
       DIA (mm) X DIA (mm) X 0.00680 = Wt. Per Mtr. 
    DIA (mm) X DIA (mm) X 0.002072 = Wt. Per Feet
    Formula for calculating SS Hexagonal Weight

    5. Formula for Calculating S.S. Flat Bar Weight:
       Width (mm) X Thick (mm) X 0.00798 = Wt. Per Mtr. 
    Width (mm) X Thick (mm) X 0.00243 = Wt. Per Feet
    Formula for calculating SS Flat Bar Weight

    6. Formula for Calculating S.S. Sheet & Plates Weight:
       Length (mtrs) X Width (mtrs) X Thick (mm) X 8.068 = Wt. Per PC. 
    Length (feet) X Width (feet) X Thick (mm) X 3/4 = Wt. Per PC
    Formula for calculating SS Sheet & Plates Weight

    7. Formula for Calculating S.S. Circle Weight:
       Dia (mm) X Dia (mm) X Thick (mm) ÷ 160 = Gms. Per PC 
    Dia (mm) X Dia (mm) X Thick (mm) X 0.0000063 = Wt. Per PC
    Formula for calculating SS Pipe Weight

    8. Formula for Calculating Brass Pipe/ Copper Pipe Weight:
       O. D. (mm) - Thick (mm) X Thick (mm) X 0.0260 = Wt. Per Mtr.
    Formula for calculating SS Pipe Weight

    9. Formula for Calculating Lead Pipe Weight:
     

    O. D. (mm) - Thick (mm) X Thick (mm) X 0.0345 = Wt. Per Mtr.

    Formula for calculating Lead Pipe Weight

    10. Formula for Calculating Aluminium Pipe Weight:
       O. D. (mm) - Thick (mm) X Thick (mm) X 0.008 = Wt. Per Mtr.
    Formula for calculating Aluminium Pipe Weight

    11. Formula for Calculating Aluminium Sheet Weight:
       Length (Mtr.) X Width (Mtr.) X Thick (mm) 2.69 = Wt. Per PC
    Formula for calculating SS Pipe Weight

    12. Conversion of Mtrs to Feet:
       Weight of 1 Mtrs ÷  3.2808  = Weight Per Feet
    13. Bar Low's Formula for Calculating Bursting Pressure:
       P = 2ST/D or t-DP/25S or S-DP/2t or D = 2st /P
    P = Bursting Pressure Psi.  
    S = Tensile Strength of Tube  
    T = Wall Thickness (in inches)  
    D = Outside Diameter (in inches)


    Stainless Steel Pipe Material | Stainless Steel Pipe Material Grade | Stainless Steel Pipe Material Specification

    316 / 316L STAINLESS STEEL PIPE GRADES

    These grades of austenitic stainless steels are similar to 304 and 304L, but with the addition of molybdenum. The addition of molybdenum improves the alloys corrosion resistance, particularly with higher resistance to pitting and crevice corrosion in chloride environments. The austenitic structure allows excellent toughness, even down to cryogenic temperatures. These grades have excellent weld-ability, with or without the addition of filler metal.

    Stock Size Range and Specifications:

    Seamless product

    NPS:1/8” through 24”
    Schedules: 5, 10S, 10, 30, 40S, 40, 80, 80S
    Specifications: ASTM A312, ASME SA312

    Welded product

    NPS:1/8” through 8”
    Schedules:10, 40, 80, 160, XXH
    Specifications: ASTM A312,ASME SA312

    Corrosion tested to MIL-P-24691/3 or A262 Practice E

    Typical Chemical Composition % (max values, unless noted)
    Weight % C Mn P S Si Cr Ni Mo
    316 .08 2.00 .045 .030 1.00 16.0-18.0 11.0-14.0 2.0-3.0
    316L .035 2.00 .045 .030 1.00 16.0-18.0 10.0-14.0 2.0-3.0
    Typical Mechanical Properties
    Grade Tensile
      Ultimate/Min Yield/Min Elongation/Min
      KSI MPA KSI MPA %
    316 75 515 30 205 35
    316L 70 485 25 170 35

    304 / 304L STAINLESS STEEL PIPE GRADES

    These grades of austenitic stainless steels are the most versatile and widely used stainless steels. They exhibit excellent corrosion resistance to a wide range of corrosive environments. Type 304 and 304L grades of stainless steel pipe exhibit good machinability and have excellent weld-ability characteristics with or without the addition of filler metals.

    Stock Size Range and Specifications:

    Seamless product

    MPS:1/8" through 24"
    Schedules:5, 10, 10S, 20, 30, 40, 40S, 80, 80S
    Specifications: ASTM A312, ASME SA312

    Welded product

    NPS:1/8" through 12"
    Schedules:5, 10, 40, 80, 160, XXH
    Specifications: ASTM A312,ASME SA312

    Corrosion tested to MIL-P-24691/3 or A262 Practice E

    Typical Chemical Composition % (max values, unless noted)
    Weight % C Mn P S Si Cr Ni
    304 .08 2.00 .045 .030 1.00 18.0-20.0 8.0-11.0
    304L .035 2.00 .045 .030 1.00 18.0-20.0 8.0-13.0
    Typical Mechanical Properties
    Grade Tensile
      Ultimate/Min Yield/Min Elongation/Min
      KSI MPA KSI MPA %
    304 75 515 30 205 35
    304L 70 485 25 170 35

    Stainless Steel Tube, Pipe and Fittings Product Specifications

    Stainless Steel Tube and Fittings

    Standard Description
    ASTM A213/A213M Seamless ferritic and austenitic alloy steel boiler, superheater and heat exchanger tubes.
    ASTM A249/A249M Welded austenitic steel boiler, superheater, heat exchanger and condenser tubes.
    ASTM A269 Seamless and welded austenitic stainless steel tubing for general purposes.
    ASTM A270 Seamless and welded austenitic stainless steel sanitary tubing.
    ASTM A450/A450M General requirements for carbon, ferritic alloy and austenitic alloy steel tubes.
    ASTM A554 Welded stainless steel mechanical tubing.
    ASTM A791/A791M Welded unannealed ferritic stainless steel tubing.
    ASTM A789/A789M Seamless and welded ferritic/austenitic stainless steel tubing for general service.
    AS1163 Structural steel hollow sections (dimensional tolerances).
    AS1528, Parts 1 to 4 Tubes (stainless steel) and tube fittings for the food industry.
    Higher austenitic  
    ASTM B674 UNS N08904 welded tube.
    ASTM B677 UNS N08904 seamless pipe and tube.

    Stainless Steel Pipe

    Standard Description
    ASTM A312/A312M Seamless and welded austenitic stainless steel pipe.
    ASTM A358/A358M Electric-Fusion-Welded (EFW) austenitic chromium-nickel alloy steel pipe for high temperature service.
    ASTM A409/A409M Welded large diameter austenitic steel pipe for corrosive or high temperature service.
    ASTM A731/A731M Seamless and welded ferritic and martensitic stainless steel pipe.
    ASTM A790/A790M Seamless and welded ferritic/austenitic stainless steel pipe.
    ASTM A450/A450M General requirements for carbon, ferritic alloy and austenitic alloy steel tubes.
    ASTM A530/A530M General requirements for specialised carbon and alloy steel pipe.
    JIS G3459 Stainless steel pipes.
    ANSI/ASME B36.10M Welded and seamless wrought steel pipe.
    ANSI/ASME B36.19M Stainless steel pipe.
    Higher austenitic  
    ASTM A673 UNS N08904 welded pipe.
    ASTM A677 UNS N08904 seamless pipe and tube.

    Stainless Steel Pipe Fittings and Flanges

    Standard Description
    ASTM A182/A182M Forged or rolled alloy steel pipe flanges, forged fittings and valves and parts for high temperature service.
    ASTM A403/A403M Wrought austenitic stainless steel piping fittings.
    ASTM A815/A815M Wrought ferritic, ferritic/austenitic and martensitic stainless steel piping fittings.
    AS 2129 Flanges for pipes, valves and fittings
    ANSI/ASME B1.20.1 Pipe threads, general purpose (inch).
    ANSI B16.5 Steel pipe flanges and flanged fittings.
    ANSI B16.9 Factory-made wrought steel butt-welding fittings.
    ANSI B16.11 Forged steel fittings socket-welding and threaded.
    ANSI B16.25 Butt-welding ends.
    MSS SP43 Wrought stainless steel butt-welding fittings.
    BS21 Threading.
    ISO 4144 Stainless steel fittings threaded to ISO 7-1.

    austenitic steel tubing, austenitic stainless steel tubes, austenitic stainless steel pipe, seamless austenitic stainless steel tube

    Austenitic stainless steel tubes

    Formable tubes for versatile use

    Austenitic stainless steel is the most used stainless material in the world. The standard grades for everyday business are covered mainly by 304 and 316L/316Ti types of austenitics. 

    Austenitic stainless steel sustains its mechanical values, even at higher temperatures. This sustainability of mechanical values makes it possible to obtain 30-minute fire resistance in stainless steel structures, without any additional fire protection.

    Advantages of austenitic stainless steel:

    • Excellent formability
    • Excellent corrosion resistance
    • Toughness at low temperatures
    • Good weldability
    • Fire resistance

    Available material grades for austenitic stainless steel rectangular tubes:

    • Austenitic metric (1.4301, 1.4307, 1.4404, 1.4571)
    • Austenitic imperial (304, 304L, 316L, 316 Ti)
    • Also special project materials by request

    316 / 316L STAINLESS STEEL PIPE

    These grades of austenitic stainless steels are similar to 304 and 304L, but with the addition of molybdenum. The addition of molybdenum improves the alloys corrosion resistance, particularly with higher resistance to pitting and crevice corrosion in chloride environments. The austenitic structure allows excellent toughness, even down to cryogenic temperatures. These grades have excellent weld-ability, with or without the addition of filler metal.

    SHOP 316 / 316L STAINLESS STEEL PIPE

    Stock Size Range and Specifications:

    Seamless product

    NPS:1/8” through 24” Schedules: 5, 10S, 10, 30, 40S, 40, 80, 80S

    Specifications: ASTM A312, ASME SA312

    Welded product

    NPS:1/8” through 8” Schedules: 10, 40, 80, 160, XXH

    Specifications: ASTM A312,ASME SA312

    Corrosion tested to MIL-P-24691/3 or A262 Practice E

    Typical Chemical Composition % (max values, unless noted)
    Weight % C Mn P S Si Cr Ni Mo
    316 .08 2.00 .045 .030 1.00 16.0-18.0 11.0-14.0 2.0-3.0
    316L .035 2.00 .045 .030 1.00 16.0-18.0 10.0-14.0 2.0-3.0
    Typical Mechanical Properties
    Grade Tensile
      Ultimate/Min Yield/Min Elongation/Min
      KSI MPA KSI MPA %
    316 75 515 30 205 35
    316L 70 485 25 170 35

    Stainless Steel Tube Specefication

    Spec. No. Title Scope
    ASTM A 213
    ASME SA 213
    Seamless Ferritic Stainless Steel and Austenitic Stainless Steel Boiler, Superheater, Heat-Exchanger, and Condenser Tubes. Pressure tubes, made from 16 grades of austenitic stainless steel and from 12 grades of ferritic Cr-Mo Alloy Steel.
    ASTM A 249
    ASME SA 249
    Welded Austenitic Stainless Steel Boiler, Superheater, Heat-Exchanger, and Condenser Tubes. Pressure tubes, made from austenitic stainless steels, (Types 304, 304H, 304L, 305, 309, 310, 316, 316H, 316L, 317, 321, 321H, 347, 347H, 348, 348H, and XM grades.)
    ASTM A 268
    ASME SA 268
    Seamless and Welded Ferritic Stainless Steel Tubing for General Service. 15 grades of ferritic stainless steel tubing for general corrosion resistance and high temperature service. (Types 329, 405, 409, 410, 429, 430, 430Ti, 443, 446, XMs & others).
    ASTM A 269 Seamless and Welded Austenitic Stainless Steel Tubing for General Service. 13 grades of austenitic stainless steel tubing for general corrosion-resisting and high-temperature service. (Types 304, 304L, 316, 316L, 317, 321, 347, 348 and XM grades).
    ASTM A 270 Seamless and Welded Austenitic Stainless Steel Sanitary Tubing. Austenitic stainless steel tubing intended for use in the diary and food industry in sizes up to and including 4 in. in outside diameter.
    ASTM A 312
    ASME SA 312
    Seamless and Welded Austenitic Stainless Steel Pipe. Austenitic stainless steel pipe intended for high temperature and general corrosive service. 22 grades are covered.
    ASTM A 358
    ASME SA 358
    Electric-Fusion-Welded Austenitic Chromium-Nickel Alloy Steel Pipe for High-Temperature Service. For corrosion and high temperature service, normally not less than 8 in. nominal diameter. Types 304, 316, 309, 310, 321, 347, 304L, 316L, 304H, 316H.
    ASTM A 376 
    ASME SA 376
    Seamless Austenitic Stainless Steel Pipe for High-Temp Central-Station Service. Austenitic stainless steel pipe intended for high temperature and general corrosive service. Better surface than A312 pipe.
    ASTM A 409 
    ASME SA 409
    Welded Large Outside Diameter Light Wall Austenitic Chromium-Nickel Alloy Steel Pipe for Corrosive or High Temperature Service. Nominal diameter 14-30 in. in Schedules 5S and l0S. Types 304, 309, 310, 316, 317, 321, 347, 348, 304L, 316L.
    ASTM A 450 
    ASME SA 450
    General requirements for Alloy Steel Tubes. Common requirements for ASTM tubular specifications.
    ASTM A 511 Seamless Stainless Steel Mechanical Tubing. 27 grades are covered for mechanical applications. Primarily round tubing.
    ASTM A 530
    ASME SA 530
    General Requirements for Carbon, Ferritic Alloy, and Austenitic Alloy Steel Pipe. Common requirements for ASTM pipe specifications as listed.
    ASTM A 554 Welded Stainless Steel Mechanical Tubing. Nineteen grades are covered for mechanical applications. Rounds, squares, rectangles, and special shapes are included.
    ASTM A 632 Seamless and Welded Austenitic Stainless Steel Tubing for General Service. Small Diameter. 9 grades of austenitic stainless steel tubing for general corrosion-resisting and high-temperature service.
    AMS 556 Steel Tubing, Corrosion and Heat Resistant 18 Cr; 11 Ni; (Cb + Ta) (SAE 30347) Hydraulic. Annealed type 321 hydraulic line tubing. Type 1-Seamless Type 2-Welded & Drawn
    AMS 5557 Steel Tubing, Corrosion and Heat Resistant 18 Cr; 11 Ni; Ti (SAE 30321)Hydraulic Annealed type 347 hydraulic line tubing. Type 1-Seamless Type 2-Welded & Drawn
    AMS 5558 Steel Tubing, Welded, Corrosion and Heat Resistant 18 Cr; 11 Ni, (Cb + Ta)(SAE 30348) Thin Wall. High pressure ducting, wall thickness 2% of O.D. or less. Weld bead controlled, X-ray.
    AMS 5559 Steel Tubing, Welded, Corrosion and Heat Resistant 18 Cr, 10 Ni, Ti, (SAE 30321) Thin Wall. High pressure ducting, wall thickness 2% of O.D. or less. Weld bead controlled, X-ray.
    AMS 5560 Steel Tubing, Seamless Corrosion Resistant 19 Cr; 9 Ni (SAE 30304). Annealed type 304 aircraft hydraulic fine tubing. (Not subject to high pressure). Structural.
    AMS 5561 Steel Tubing, Welded and Drawn Corrosion Resistant 21 Cr; 6 Ni; 9 Mn High Pressure Hydraulic. For parts and assemblies such as fluid lines subject to high pressure and requiring corrosion resistance. 1/8 - 1/4 Hard.
    AMS 5562 Steel Tubing, Seamless Corrosion Resistant 21 Cr; 6 Ni; 9 Mn Annealed. Parts and assemblies requiring both corrosion and heat resistance, and having higher strength than 18-8 types.
    AMS 5565 Steel Tubing, Welded, Corrosion Resistant 19 Cr; 6 Ni (SAE 30304). Annealed type 304 aircraft hydraulic line tubing. (Not subject to high pressure), Structural.
    AMS 5566 Steel Tubing, Seamless or Welded Corrosion Resistant 19 Cr; 10 N (SAE 30304) High Pressure Hydraulic Cold drawn type 304, high pressure, aircraft hydraulic line tubing. 1/8 hard. 
    Type 1óSeamless 
    Type 2óWelded & Drawn
    AMS 5567 Steel Tubing, Seamless or Welded Corrosion Resistant 19Cr; 10 Ni (SAE 30304) Hydraulic, Solution Treated. Fluid lines subject to medium high pressures requiring corrosion resistance. Annealed.(1) Seamless (2) Welded & Drawn
    AMS 5570 Steel Tubing, Seamless Corrosion and Heat Resistant 18 Cr; 10 Ni; Ti (SAE 30321). Annealed Structural. Parts and assemblies requiring both corrosion and heat resistance especially when such parts are welded during fabrication. Requiring oxidation resistance up to approximately 1500?F, but useful at that temperature only when stresses are low.
    AMS 5571 Steel Tubing, Seamless Corrosion and Heat Resistant 18 Cr; 11 Ni; (Cb + Ta) (SAE 30347). Annealed Structural. Parts and assemblies requiring both corrosion and heat resistance especially when such parts are welded during fabrication. Requiring oxidation resistance up to approximately 1500?F, but useful at that temperature only when stresses are low.
    AMS 5572 Steel Tubing, Seamless Corrosion and Heat Resistant 25 Cr; 20 Ni (SAE 30310). Annealed Structural. Parts and assemblies requiring both corrosion and heat resistance especially when welded during fabrication, Requiring oxidation resistance up to approximately 2000?F, but useful at that temperature only when stresses are low.
    AMS 5573 Seamless Type 316 Annealed Structural Parts & assemblies requirinq,,both corrosion and heat resistance up to 1600?F.
    AMS 5574 Seamless Type 309S Annealed Structural Parts & assemblies requiring both corrosion and heat resistance up to 2000?F, especially welded assemblies.
    AMS 5575 Steel Tubing, Seamless Corrosion and Heat Resistant 18 Cr; 11 Ni; (Gb + Ta) (SAE 30347). Annealed Structural. Parts and assemblies requiring both corrosion and heat resistance especially when such parts are welded during fabrication. Requiring oxidation resistance up to approximately 1500?F, but useful at that temperature only when stresses are low.
    AMS 5576 Steel Tubing. Welded, Corrosion and Heat Resistant 18 Cr; 10 Ni; Ti (SAE 30321). Annealed Structural. Parts and assemblies requiring both corrosion and heat resistance especially when such parts are welded during fabrication. Requiring oxidation resistance up to approximately 1500?F, but useful at that temperature only when stresses are low.
    AMS 5577 Steel Tubing, Welded, Corrosion and Heat Resistant 25 Cr; 20 Ni; (SAE 30310). Annealed Structural. Parts and assemblies requiring both corrosion and heat resistance especially when welded during fabrication. Requiring oxidation resistance up to approximately 2000?F, but useful at that temperature only when stresses are low.
    AMS 5639 Seamless Type 304 Cold Finished Mechanical Tube Rockwell 90B max Hardness Corrosion Embrittlement Capability
    AMS 5645 Seamless Type 321 Cold Finished Mechanical Tube Rockwell 90B max Hardness Corrosion Embrittlement Capability
    AMS 5546 Seamless Type 347 Cold Finished Mechanical Tube Rockwell 90B max Hardness Corrosion Embrittlement Capability
    AMS 5647 Seamless Type 304L Cold Finished Mechanical Tube Rockwell 90B max Hardness Corrosion Embrittlement Capability
    AMS 5648 Seamless Type 316 Cold Finished Mechanical Tube Rockwell 90B max Hardness
    MIL-T-5695 Tubing, Steel, Corrosion Resistant, (304) Cold Drawn (1/2 or 1/4 Hard) Smls or W&D. Intended for use in the fabrication of aircraft structural parts requiring a high degree of resistance to corrosion.
    MIL-T-6737
    (T 321)
    Tubing, Steel, Corrosion and Heat Resistant (18-8 Stabilized), Welded.Annealed. Type 321 and 347 tubing intended for use in the manufactured exhaust-stacks, manifolds, blast tubes, ring collectors and similar applications where a weldable corrosion and heat resisting steel is required or for use at 8000 - 1500?F.
    MIL-T-6845
    (T304)
    Tubing, Steel, Corrosion Resistant (304) Aerospace Vehicle Hydraulic System. 1/8 Hard, Seamless, Welded & Drawn. Intended for use in high pressure hydraulic and pneumatic systems in which corrosion resistant materials are required. The tubing is not suitable for use in applications assembled by welding or brazing or exposed to temperatures higher than 800?F, because of impaired resistance to corrosion, where subsequent anneal not possible.
    MIL-T-8504
    (T 304)
    Tubing, Steel, Corrosion Resistant (18-8) Annealed, Aircraft Hydraulic System. Seamless, Welded. Intended for use in high pressure hydraulic and pneumatic systems in which corrosion resistant materials are required. This tubing is of lower strength and higher ductility than tubing to Specification MIL-T-6845. May be used to replace MIL-T-6845 tubing but heavier wall thicknesses must be used:Same qualifications regarding welding, brazing & temperature.
    MIL-T-8506
    (T 304)
    Tubing, Steel, Corrosion Resistant, (304) Annealed, Seamless, Welded. Intended for use in the fabrication of aircraft parts requiring a high degree of resistance to corrosion. Not to be used in high pressure hydraulic control systems.
    MILT 8606
    (T 304L)
    (T 321)
    (T 347)
    Tubing, Steal, Corrosion Resistant (18-8 Stabilized). Annealed. Seamless, Welded & Drawn. Intended for use in applications which require a high degree of resistance to corrosion or to temperatures in the range of 800?F-1500?F. or in applications which involve welding. Suitble for use in tank-automotive equipment for hydraulic and mechanical applications.
    MlL-T-8808
    (T 321)
    (T 347)
    Tubing, Steel, Corrosion Resistant (l8-8 Stabilized), Aircraft Hydraulic Quality. Annealed, Seamless, Welded & Drawn. Intended for use in high pressure hydraulic and pneumatic systems where corrosion and heat resistance are required and in which welding or brazing may be involved during fabrication. Resists oxidation at temperatures to 1200?F, but is useful at that temperature only when stresses are low.
    MIL-T4973
    (T 304L)
    (T 316L)
    (T 321)
    (T 347)
    Tubing, Steel, Corrosion Resistant, Aerospace Vehicle Hydraulic System. 1/8Hard. Seamless, Welded & Drawn. Intended for use in high pressure hydraulic and pneumatic systems where corrosion and heat resistance are required and in which welding or brazing may be involved during fabrication. Suitable for use in temperatures to 1200?F, when stresses are low.
    MIL-P-1144
    (T 304) (T 304L)
    (T 316) (T 316L)
    (T 321) (T 347)
    Pipe, Stainless Steel, (Corrosion Resisting). Seamless or Welded. Annealed. Pipe is intended for high-temperature and hydraulic br other pressure service under general corrosive conditions.

    Stainless Steel Pipe Weights and Dimensions

    Black - Indicates wall thickness in inches.
    Red
    - Indicates weight per foot in pounds.

    PIPE SIZE O.D. 5s True 5 10s True 10 20 30 True 40 STD. 60 True 80 XH 100 120 140 True 160 XXH
    1/8 0.405 .035
    .1383
    .049
    .1863
    .049
    .1863
    .068
    .2447
    .0668
    .2447
    .095
    .3145
    .095
    .3145
    1/4 0.540 .049
    .2570
    .065 .
    3297
    .065
    .3297
    .088
    .4248
    .088
    .4248
    .119
    .5351
    .119
    .5351
    3/8 0.675 .049
    .3276
    .065
    .4235
    .065
    .4235
    .091
    .5676
    .091
    .5676
    .126
    .7388
    .126
    .7388
    1/2 0.840 .065
    .5383
    .065
    .5380
    .083
    .6710
    .083
    .6710
    .109
    .8510
    .109
    .8510
    .147
    1.088
    .147
    1.088
    .187
    1.304
    .294
    1.714
    3/4 1.050 .065
    .6838
    .065
    .6838
    .083
    .8572
    .083
    .8572
    .113
    1.131
    .113
    1.131
    .154
    1.474
    .154
    1.474
    .218
    1.937
    .308
    2.441
    1 1.315 .065
    .8678
    .065
    .8678
    .109
    1.404
    .109
    1.404
    .133
    1.679
    .133
    1.679
    .179
    2.172
    .179
    2.172
    .250
    3.765
    .382
    5.214
    1 1/4 1.660 .065
    1.107
    .065
    1.107
    .109
    1.806
    .109
    1.806
    .140
    2.273
    .140
    2.273
    .191
    2.997
    .191
    2.997
    .250
    3.765
    .382
    5.214
    1 1/2 1.900 .065
    1.274
    .065
    1.274
    .109
    2.085
    .109
    2.085
    .145
    2.718
    .145
    2.718
    .200
    3.631
    .200
    3.631
    .281
    4.859
    .400
    6.408
    2 2.375 .065
    1.604
    .065
    1.604
    .109
    2.638
    .109
    2.638
    .154
    3.653
    .154
    3.653
    .218
    5.022
    .218
    5.022
    .343
    7.444
    .436
    9.029
    2 1/2 2.875 .083
    2.475
    .083
    2.475
    .120
    3.531
    .120
    3.531
    .203
    5.793
    .203
    5.793
    .276
    7.661
    .276
    7.661
    .375
    10.01
    .552
    13.70
    3 3.5 .083
    3.029
    .083
    3.029
    .120
    4.332
    .120
    4.332
    .216
    7.576
    .216
    7.576
    .300
    10.25
    .300
    10.25
    .438
    14.32
    .600
    18.58
    3 1/2 4.0 .083
    3.472
    .083
    3.472
    .120
    4.973
    .120
    4.973
    .226
    9.109
    .226
    9.109
    .318
    12.51
    .318
    12.51
    .636
    22.85
    4 4.5 .083
    3.915
    .083
    3.915
    .120
    5.613
    .120
    5.613
    .237
    10.79
    .237
    10.79
    .281
    12.66
    .337
    14.98
    .337
    14.98
    .438
    19.00
    .531
    22.51
    .674
    27.54
    4 1/2 5.0 .247
    12.53
    .355
    17.61
    .710
    32.53
    5 5.563 .109
    6.349
    .109
    6.349
    .134
    7.770
    .134
    7.770
    .258
    14.62
    .258
    14.62
    .375
    20.78
    .375
    20.78
    .500
    27.04
    .625
    32.96
    .750
    38.55
    6 6.625 .109
    7.585
    .109
    7.585
    .134
    9.290
    .134
    9.289
    .280
    18.97
    .280
    18.97
    .432
    28.57
    .432
    28.57
    .562
    36.39
    .719
    45.30
    .864
    53.16
    7 7.625 .301
    23.57
    .500
    38.05
    .875
    63.08
    8 8.625 .109
    9.914
    .109
    9.914
    .148
    13.40
    .148
    13.40
    .250
    22.36
    .277
    24.70
    .322
    28.55
    .322
    28.55
    .406
    35.64
    .500
    43.39
    .500
    43.39
    .594
    50.87
    .719
    60.63
    .812
    67.76
    .906
    74.69
    .875
    72.42
    9 9.625 .342
    33.90
    .500
    48.72
    10 10.75 .134
    15.19
    .134
    15.19
    .165
    18.65
    .165
    18.70
    .250
    28.04
    .307
    34.24
    .365
    40.48
    .365
    40.48
    .500
    54.74
    .594
    64.33
    .500
    54.74
    .719
    76.93
    .844
    89.20
    1.000
    104.1
    1.125
    115.6
    11 11.75 .375
    45.55
    .500
    60.07
    12 12.75 .156
    21.07
    .165
    22.18
    .180
    24.16
    .180
    24.20
    .250
    33.38
    .330
    43.77
    .406
    53.53
    .375
    49.56
    .562
    73.16
    .688
    88.51
    .500
    65.42
    .844
    107.2
    1.000
    125.5
    1.125
    139.7
    1.312
    160.3
    14 14.0 .156
    23.07
    .188
    27.73
    .250
    36.71
    .312
    45.68
    .375
    54.57
    .437
    63.37
    .375
    54.57
    .594
    84.91
    .750
    106.1
    .500
    72.09
    .938
    130.7
    1.094
    150.7
    1.250
    170.2
    1.406
    189.1
    16 16.0 .165
    27.90
    .188
    31.75
    .250
    42.05
    .312
    52.36
    .375
    62.58
    .500
    82.77
    .375
    62.58
    .656
    107.5
    .844
    136.5
    .500
    82.77
    1.031
    164.8
    1.219
    192.3
    1.438
    223.5
    1.593
    245.1
    18 18.0 .165
    31.43
    .188
    35.76
    .250
    47.39
    .312
    59.03
    .437
    82.06
    .562
    104.8
    .375
    70.59
    .750
    138.2
    .938
    170.8
    .500
    93.45
    1.156
    208.0
    1.375
    244.1
    1.562
    274.2
    1.781
    308.5
    20 20.0 .188
    39.78
    .218
    46.05
    .250
    52.73
    .375
    78.60
    .500
    104.1
    .594
    122.9
    .375
    78.60
    .812
    166.4
    1.031
    208.9
    .500
    104.1
    1.281
    256.1
    1.500
    296.4
    1.750
    341.1
    1.968
    379.0
    22 22.0 .250
    58.07
    .375
    86.61
    .500
    114.81
    .375
    86.61
    .875
    197.42
    1.125
    250.82
    .500
    114.81
    1.357
    302.88
    1.625
    353.61
    1.875
    403.01
    2.125
    451.07
    24 24.0 .218
    55.37
    .250
    63.41
    .250
    63.41
    .375
    94.62
    .562
    140.8
    .687
    171.2
    .375
    94.62
    .969
    238.1
    1.219
    296.4
    .500
    125.5
    1.531
    367.4
    1.812
    429.4
    2.062
    483.1
    2.343
    541.9
    26 26.0 .312
    85.73
    .375
    102.63
    .500
    136.17
    30 30.0 .250
    79.43
    .312
    98.93
    .312
    99.08
    .625
    196.08
    .375
    118.65
    .500
    157.53
    34 34.0 .312
    112.43
    .625
    222.78
    .688
    244.60
    .375
    134.67
    .500
    178.89
    36 36.0 .312
    119.11
    .625
    236.13
    .688
    282.36
    .375
    142.68
    .500
    189.57
    42 42.0 .625
    276.17
    .688
    330.41
    .375
    166.71
    .500
    221.61
    PIPE SIZE O.D. 5s True 5 10s True 10 20 30 True 40 STD. 60 True 80 XH 100 120 140 True 160 XXH

    Stainless Steel Pipe 316L
    Rs 260/ Kilogram

    ASTM A 312 TP 316L Seamless Pipe
    Rs 150/ Meter

    Price SS Stainless Steel Welded Pipes & Tubes ( 304)


    Stainless Steel Welded Pipes & Tubes ( 304)

    RATES  OF S.S. TUBES 304 PER MTR.

    SIZE

    O.D.

    10G(3.25)

    12G(2.64)

    14G(2.03)

    16G(1.62)

    18G(1.21)

    20G(0.91)

    IN MM

    [0.128"]

    [0.104"]

    [0.080"]

    [0.064"]

    [0.048"]

    [0.036"]

    1/2" 12.7 155 138 119 101 79 59

    3/4"

    19.05

    266

    224.7

    184.8

    155.1

    116.6

    89.1

    1"

    25.4

    363

    302.4

    247.5

    212.3

    157.3

    121

    1.1/4"

    31.75

    467

    389.55

    315.7

    264

    198

    144.1

    1.1/2"

    38.1

    571

    470.4

    381.7

    326.7

    239.8

    180.4

    1.3/4"

    44.45

    686

    558.6

    454.3

    382.8

    281.6

    212.3

    2"

    50.8

    760

    627.9

    502.7

    437.8

    322.3

    242

    2.1/2"

    63.5

    964

    791.7

    633.6

    572

    405.9

    0

    3"

    76.2

    1167

    955.5

    764.5

    666.6

    488.4

    0

    4"

    101.6

    1573

    1290.45

    1026.3

    894.3

    0

    0

    5"

    127.0

    2031

    1664.25

    1322.2

    1178.1

    0

    0

    6"

    152.4

    2455

    2004.45

    1591.7

    1421.2

    0

    0

    RATES OF S.S. PIPES 304Q PER MTR

    MM

    INCH

    SCH 5

    SCH 10

    SCH 40

    15

    1/2"

    175

    222

    262

    20

    3/4"

    211

    275

    341

    25

    1"

    262

    421

    497

    32

    1.1/4"

    334

    541

    642

    40

    1.1/2"

    385

    624

    820

    50

    2"

    483

    798

    1084

    65

    2.1/2"

    778

    1145

    1855

    80

    3"

    948

    1406

    2289

    100

    4"

    1225

    1821

    3265

    125

    5"

    1969

    2471

    4719

    150

    6"

    2352

    2925

    5578

    200

    8"

    3072

    4158

    8658

    250

    10"

    5005

    6440

    11277

    300

    12"

    6660

    7616

    15075

    350

    14"

    7865

    9094

    18384

    Rates : Subject to Final Confirmation.

    Life time  Member of 
    THE BOMBAY PIPES & FITTINGS MERCHANTۥS ASSOCIATION

    -----------------PRICE OF PIPES-------------------------------------

    Stainless Steel Pipe

    ELIVERY: Ex Stock or 15-30 DAYS or AS COMMUNICATION
    Pay Mode Terms: L/C (Letter of Credit), T/T (Bank Transfer)
    Port of Dispatch : CST Air Port, Mumbai & Nhava Seva Sea Port
    Production Capacity : 500 Metric Tons/Month

    AISI 316L Stainless Steel Pipe

    AISI 316L stainless steel pipe
    ISO9001:2008
    1) Diameters: 4 -76.2mm
    2) W.T.: 0.4 - 2.5mm
    FOB Price: US$1500 to 6900 / Ton

    Stainless Steel Pipe, Bright And Annealed, ASTMA249 TP304L

    Stainless steel pipe
    1. The price is competitive.
    2. There is a high quality.
    3. Finished Bright and Annealing.
    FOB Price: US$2950 to 6750 / Ton

    SS Pipe, 4 Inch Seamless Stainless Steel Pipe

    Water pipe, seamless stainless steel pipe (ss smls pipe)
    1.OD:12-219mm
    2.WT:1 to 5mm
    3.Standard:GB ASTM
    4.Mirror pipe
    FOB Price: US$4.62 to 19.5 / Kilogram

    COLD DRAWN Seamless Stainless Steel Pipe

    stainless steel pipe
    grade:TP304(L) TP316(L) TP321
    standard: ASTM/GOST/JIS/DIN/BS
    certificate:ISO PED
    OD:6-600,WT:1-30 L:14M...
    FOB Price: US$2500 to 7500 / Ton

    Best Quality Grade 201 304 316 430 Stainless Steel Pipe /Tube In India

    Quick Details Standard: ASTM Place of Origin: India
    Model Number: 17 Type: Seamless Steel Grade: 300 Series
    FOB Price: US$1500 to 5500 / Metric Ton

    Top Quality Stainless Steel Pipe

    stainless steel pipe
    1.Material:stainless steel
    2.Standards:ASTM,JIS,DIN,GB,SUS
    3.Diameter:6mm-610mm
    4.Thickness:0.5mm-8mm...
    FOB Price: US$1200 to 10000 / Ton

    2013 High Quality TP316 316L 321 309 310 310S 304 Stainless Steel Pipe

    1) Large Caliber Stainless Steel Pipe
    2) O.D: 15-1500mm; W.T: 1-100mm
    3) Standard: ASTM/API/DIN/JIS/GB
    4) READY STOCK
    FOB Price: US$2500 to 6500 / Ton

    304 Stainless Steel Pipe

    304 Stainless Steel Pipe
    1) Grade : 321, 304, 304L, 316, 316L, 317, 317L,310s,904L etc.
    2) Standards: GB/ASTM/ASME/DIN/JIS etc
    FOB Price: US$1000 to 7000 / Ton

    Reduction Sale ! ! ! ASTM 304 Stainless Steel Pipe Of Bottom Price

    1.Selected/high quality materials
    2.Dimensional accuracy
    3.Prime quality & bottom price
    4.Strong corrosion resistant...
    FOB Price: US$2500 to 5000 / Ton

    904L Duplex Stainless Steel Pipe Price

    904L duplex stainless steel pipe
    1.Grade:201 304 316 316L 310 310S 409 410 430 904
    2.Thickness:1mm-150mm
    3.Length:1-12m
    FOB Price: US$1500 to 7000 / Ton

    Sanitary Stainless Steel Pipe

    stainless steel pipe
    1.Grade 304L/316L/321/310S/347H
    2.OD 10mm to 3006mm
    3.WT 1mm to 15mm
    4.certification:ISO
    FOB Price: US$1000 to 7000 / Ton

    304 Stainless steel seamless pipe US $2100-2400 / Ton (FOB Price)

    316 Stainless steel seamless pipe US $2000-3000 / Ton (FOB Price)

    Inconel 625 Plate US $15-45 / Kilogram (FOB Price)

    Inconel 825 Flanges US $25-100 / Piece (FOB Price)

    ASTM 304 Welding Or Seamless Stainless Steel Pipe/Tube

    1).Item:309Stainless Steel 
    2).PipeStandard:ASTM,JIS,DIN,EN,etc.Wall 
    3).Thickness:1mm to 150mm Outside 
    4).Diameter:6mm to 2500mm
    FOB Price: US$2890 to 5950 / Ton

    304 Stainless Steel Pipes Best Price At Raaj Sagar Steels

    best Price at Raaj Sagar Steels for 304 stainless steel pipes
    1.outer diameter:6mm-2500mm
    2.thickness:0.5mm-150mm
    3.length:6m or as you
    FOB Price: US$2000 to 7000 / Ton

    Welded Stainless Steel Pipe

    welded stainless steel pipe
    1)Grade:300,600,800series
    2)O.D:0.33-300mm; W.T:0.08-6mm
    3)Standard:ASTM AISI EN DIN GB
    FOB Price: US$10 to 15000 / Ton

    Industrial Manufacturing Stainless Steel Pipe 201

    Stainless Steel Pipe
    1.Material:201,202,304,316L,310,etc
    2.OD:6mm-800mm
    3 Thickness:0.3-25mm
    4 Surface:Mirror,Satin/HL...
    FOB Price: US$1500 to 5800 / Metric Ton

    How is Stainless Steel Pipe Made | Stainless Steel Pipe and Tube Manufacturing Process

    Stainless Steel Pipe and Tube Manufacturing Process

    Stainless steel pipe and tube manufacturing process

    In the nineteenth century, rolling mill technology was the only technique used to manufacture stainless tubes and pipes for industrial purpose. This rolling technique involved long procedures.  The rolled strips of sheet were formed into a circular cross section with the help of funnel rolls. The lap welding was then done on these rolled strips through the forge welding process.

    Thankfully with the advent of development and technology, various processes came into existence for the manufacturing of stainless tubes and pipes in India. Now-a-days, stainless steel pipes and tubes are manufactured with continuous tube mill using multitorch tungsten Inert gas. The filler metal or forge welding process is not used in this technique.

    Stainless Steel Pipe and Tube Manufacturing Process

    Tube mill Process description:

    • Rolling and welding

    Firstly, the stainless steel strips are made to gone through various quality checks and are trimmed at edges. They are then fed to the tubes mill by stainless steel pipe manufacturers in India. The strips pass through the number of rollers as per the required size. In the tubes-mill, the strip is gradually converted into the tubular shape. The fitted welding machine is then used to weld trim edges of the strip using TIG welding process. The scraps and inside weld bead are removed instantaneously by the Tibo machine. In this way, rolled pipes and tubes are formed.

    • The cleaning and heating phase

    The rolled stainless steel pipes thus manufactured are cut to the required lengths depending upon the industrial demand. These stainless pipes and tubes are then subjected to cleaning to remove the dirt. Further, a heat treatment is given to these rolled pipes and tubes to remove the stresses that may occur due to welding and formation processes. Heat treatment is given on the continuously rolling hearth furnace. The furnace is fitted with temperature recorders and controllers. After the heat treatment process, the SS tubes and pipes are straightened and subjected to pickling for removing scales from the surface.

    • Cold- drawing process

    In some cases, the required size may not be obtained from the mill directly. Then, the cold operation process can be used to obtain the desired size. In cold drawing process, the tubes or pipes are coated with oxalic and soap solution. This solution acts as a lubricant to reduce friction while cold drawing operation. In the cold drawing process, the tube or pipe is drawn over the bench using Die plugs.

    • Finishing process

    The drawn-out tube or ss pipe is then subjected to cleaning, heat treatment, pickling and straightening. The computerized ink jet marking machine is used to do the marking on the finished pipes or tubes. The pipe or tube is marked with grade of material, size, heat number and the stamp of third party inspection before passing on to stainless steel pipe exporters. The stainless tubes or pipes thus produced will undergo certain testing and quality checks. This process is followed by proper packing and dispatch. There are numerous numbers of stainless steel pipe applications, these pipes and tubes are used thereafter for.

    Raaj Sagar Steels is one of the leading Stainless Steel Pipe manufacturer in India. We provide services to oil and gas, pipeline, food processing, automobile and other manufacturing industries worldwide Our state of art manufacturing unit is capable of producing wide range and dimensions of stainless steel pipe and tube. We supply our customers with the highest level of stainless steel products. We are Stainless steel pipe and tube manufacturer from India.

    Steel Pipe History

    Steel pipes are long, hollow tubes that are used for a variety of purposes. They are produced by two distinct methods which result in either a welded or seamless pipe. In both methods, raw steel is first cast into a more workable starting form. It is then made into a pipe by stretching the steel out into a seamless tube or forcing the edges together and sealing them with a weld. The first methods for producing steel pipe were introduced in the early 1800s, and they have steadily evolved into the modern processes we use today. Each year, millions of tons of steel pipe are produced. Its versatility makes it the most often used product produced by the steel industry.

    Steel pipes are found in a variety of places. Since they are strong, they are used underground for transporting water and gas throughout cities and towns. They are also employed in construction to protect electrical wires. While steel pipes are strong, they can also be lightweight. This makes them perfect for use in bicycle frame manufacture. Other places they find utility is in automobiles, refrigeration units, heating and plumbing systems, flagpoles, street lamps, and medicine to name a few.

    History

    People have used pipes for thousands of years. Perhaps the first use was by ancient agriculturalists who diverted water from streams and rivers into their fields. Archeological evidence suggests that the Chinese used reed pipe for transporting water to desired locations as early as 2000 B.C. Clay tubes that were used by other ancient civilizations have been discovered. During the first century A.D. , the first lead pipes were constructed in Europe. In tropical countries, bamboo tubes were used to transport water. Colonial Americans used wood for a similar purpose. In 1652, the first waterworks was made in Boston using hollow logs.

    Development of the modern day welded steel pipe can be traced back to the early 1800s. In 1815, William Murdock invented a coal burning lamp system. To fit the entire city of London with these lights, Murdock joined together the barrels from discarded muskets. He used this continuous pipeline to transport the coal gas. When his lighting system proved successful a greater demand was created for long metal tubes. To produce enough tubes to meet this demand, a variety of inventors set to work on developing new pipe making processes.

    An early notable method for producing metal tubes quickly and inexpensively was patented by James Russell in 1824. In his method, tubes were created by joining together opposite edges of a flat iron strip. The metal was first heated until it was malleable. Using a drop hammer, the edges folded together and welded. The pipe was finished by passing it through a groove and rolling mill.

    Russell's method was not used long because in the next year, Comelius Whitehouse developed a better method for making metal tubes. This process, called the butt-weld process is the basis for our current pipe-making procedures. In his method, thin sheets of iron were heated and drawn through a cone-shaped opening. As the metal went through the opening, its edges curled up and created a pipe shape. The two ends were welded together to finish the pipe. The first manufacturing plant to use

    Welded pipe is formed by rolling steel strips through a series of grooved rollers that mold the material into a circular shape. Next, the unwelded pipe passes by welding electrodes. These devices seal the two ends of the pipe together.Welded pipe is formed by rolling steel strips through a series of grooved rollers that mold the material into a circular shape. Next, the unwelded pipe passes by welding electrodes. These devices seal the two ends of the pipe together. this process in the United States was opened in 1832 in Philadelphia.

    Gradually, improvements were made in the Whitehouse method. One of the most important innovations was introduced by John Moon in 1911. He suggested the continuous process method in which a manufacturing plant could produce pipe in an unending stream. He built machinery for this specific purpose and many pipe manufacturing facilities adopted it.

    While the welded tube processes were being developed, a need for seamless metal pipes arouse. Seamless pipes are those which do not have a welded seam. They were first made by drilling a hole through the center of a solid cylinder. This method was developed during the late 1800s. These types of pipes were perfect for bicycle frames because they have thin walls, are lightweight but are strong. In 1895, the first plant to produce seamless tubes was built. As bicycle manufacturing gave way to auto manufacturing, seamless tubes were still needed for gasoline and oil lines. This demand was made even greater as larger oil deposits were found.

    As early as 1840, ironworkers could already produce seamless tubes. In one method, a hole was drilled through a solid metal, round billet. The billet was then heated and drawn through a series of dies which elongated it to form a pipe. This method was inefficient because it was difficult to drill the hole in the center. This resulted in an uneven pipe with one side being thicker than the other. In 1888, an improved method was awarded a patent. In this process the solid billed was cast around a fireproof brick core. When it was cooled, the brick was removed leaving a hole in the middle. Since then new roller techniques have replaced these methods.

    Design

    There are two types of steel pipe, one is seamless and another has a single welded seam along its length. Both have different uses. Seamless tubes are typically more light weight, and have thinner walls. They are used for bicycles and transporting liquids. Seamed tubes are heavier and more rigid. The have a better consistency and are typically straighter. They are used for things such as gas transportation, electrical conduit and plumbing. Typically, they are used in instances when the pipe is not put under a high degree of stress.

    Certain pipe characteristics can be controlled during production. For example, the diameter of the pipe is often modified depending how it will be used. The diameter can range from tiny pipes used to make hypodermic needles, to large pipes used to transport gas throughout a city. The wall thickness of the pipe can also be controlled. Often the type of steel will also have an impact on pipe's the strength and flexibility. Other controllable characteristics include length, coating material, and end finish.

    Raw Materials

    The primary raw material in pipe production is steel. Steel is made up of primarily iron. Other metals that may be present in the alloy include aluminum, manganese, titanium, tungsten, vanadium, and zirconium. Some finishing materials are sometimes used during production. For example, paint may be

    Seamless pipe is manufactured using a process that heats and molds a solid billet into a cylindrical shape and then rolls it until it is stretched and hollowed. Since the hollowed center is irregularly shaped, a bullet-shaped piercer point is pushed through the middle of the billet as it is being rolled.

    Seamless pipe is manufactured using a process that heats and molds a solid billet into a cylindrical shape and then rolls it until it is stretched and hollowed. Since the hollowed center is irregularly shaped, a bullet-shaped piercer point is pushed through the middle of the billet as it is being rolled.

    used if the pipe is coated. Typically, a light amount of oil is applied to steel pipes at the end of the production line. This helps protect the pipe. While it is not actually a part of the finished product, sulfuric acid is used in one manufacturing step to clean the pipe.

    The Manufacturing 
    Process

    Steel pipes are made by two different processes. The overall production method for both processes involves three steps. First, raw steel is converted into a more workable form. Next, the pipe is formed on a continuous or semicontinuous production line. Finally, the pipe is cut and modified to meet the customer's needs.

    Ingot production

    • 1 Molten steel is made by melting iron ore and coke (a carbon-rich substance that results when coal is heated in the absence of air) in a furnace, then removing most of the carbon by blasting oxygen into the liquid. The molten steel is then poured into large, thick-walled iron molds, where it cools into ingots.
    • 2 In order to form flat products such as plates and sheets, or long products such as bars and rods, ingots are shaped between large rollers under enormous pressure.

    Producing blooms and slabs

    • 3 To produce a bloom, the ingot is passed through a pair of grooved steel rollers that are stacked. These types of rollers are called "two-high mills." In some cases, three rollers are used. The rollers are mounted so that their grooves coincide, and they move in opposite directions. This action causes the steel to be squeezed and stretched into thinner, longer pieces. When the rollers are reversed by the human operator, the steel is pulled back through making it thinner and longer. This process is repeated until the steel achieves the desired shape. During this process, machines called manipulators flip the steel so that each side is processed evenly.
    • 4 Ingots may also be rolled into slabs in a process that is similar to the bloom making process. The steel is passed through a pair of stacked rollers which stretch it. However, there are also rollers mounted on the side to control the width of the slabs. When the steel acquires the desired shape, the uneven ends are cut off and the slabs or blooms are cut into shorter pieces.

    Further processing

    • 5 Blooms are typically processed further before they are made into pipes. Blooms are converted into billets by putting them through more rolling devices which make them longer and more narrow. The billets are cut by devices known as flying shears. These are a pair of synchronized shears that race along with the moving billet and cut it. This allows efficient cuts without stopping the manufacturing process. These billets are stacked and will eventually become seamless pipe.
    • 6 Slabs are also reworked. To make them malleable, they are first heated to 2,200° F (1,204° C). This causes an oxide coating to form on the surface of the slab. This coating is broken off with a scale breaker and high pressure water spray. The slabs are then sent through a series of rollers on a hot mill and made into thin narrow strips of steel called skelp. This mill can be as long as a half mile. As the slabs pass through the rollers, they become thinner and longer. In the course of about three minutes a single slab can be converted from a 6 in (15.2 cm) thick piece of steel to a thin steel ribbon that can be a quarter mile long.
    • 7 After stretching, the steel is pickled. This process involves running it through a series of tanks that contain sulfuric acid to clean the metal. To finish, it is rinsed with cold and hot water, dried and then rolled up on large spools and packaged for transport to a pipe making facility.

    Pipe making

    • 8 Both skelp and billets are used to make pipes. Skelp is made into welded pipe. It is first placed on an unwinding machine. As the spool of steel is unwound, it is heated. The steel is then passed through a series of grooved rollers. As it passes by, the rollers cause the edges of the skelp to curl together. This forms an unwelded pipe.
    • 9 The steel next passes by welding electrodes. These devices seal the two ends of the pipe together. The welded seam is then passed through a high pressure roller which helps create a tight weld. The pipe is then cut to a desired length and stacked for further processing. Welded steel pipe is a continuous process and depending on the size of the pipe, it can be made as fast as 1,100 ft (335.3 m) per minute.
    • 10 When seamless pipe is needed, square billets are used for production. They are heated and molded to form a cylinder shape, also called a round. The round is then put in a furnace where it is heated white-hot. The heated round is then rolled with great pressure. This high pressure rolling causes the billet to stretch out and a hole to form in the center. Since this hole is irregularly shaped, a bullet shaped piercer point is pushed through the middle of the billet as it is being rolled. After the piercing stage, the pipe may still be of irregular thickness and shape. To correct this it is passed through another series of rolling mills.

    Final processing

    • 11 After either type of pipe is made, they may be put through a straightening machine. They may also be fitted with joints so two or more pieces of pipe can be connected. The most common type of joint for pipes with smaller diameters is threading—tight grooves that are cut into the end of the pipe. The pipes are also sent through a measuring machine. This information along with other quality control data is automatically stenciled on the pipe. The pipe is then sprayed with a light coating of protective oil. Most pipe is typically treated to prevent it from rusting. This is done by galvanizing it or giving it a coating of zinc. Depending on the use of the pipe, other paints or coatings may be used.

    Quality Control

    A variety of measures are taken to ensure that the finished steel pipe meets specifications. For example, x-ray gauges are used to regulate the thickness of the steel. The gauges work by utilizing two x rays. One ray is directed at a steel of known thickness. The other is directed at the passing steel on the production line. If there is any variance between the two rays, the gauge will automatically trigger a resizing of the rollers to compensate.

    Pipes are also inspected for defects at the end of the process. One method of testing a pipe is by using a special machine. This machine fills the pipe with water and then increases the pressure to see if it holds. Defective pipes are returned for scrap.

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