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Duplex stainless steels are extremely corrosion resistant, work hardenable alloys. Their microstructures consist of a mixture of austenite and ferrite phases. As a result, duplex stainless steels display properties characteristic of both austenitic and ferritic stainless steels. This combination of properties can mean some compromise when compared with pure austenitic and pure ferritic grades.
Duplex stainless steels are in most cases, tougher than ferritic stainless steels. Strengths of duplex stainless steels can in some cases be double that for austenitic stainless steels.
Whilst duplex stainless steels are considered resistant to stress corrosion cracking, they are not as resistant to this form of attack as ferritic stainless steels. However, the corrosion resistance of the least resistant duplex stainless steels is greater than that for the most commonly used grades of stainless steels, i.e. 304 and 316.
Duplex steels are also magnetic, a property that can be used to easily differentiate them from common austenitic grades of stainless.
Property data given in this document is typical for bar products covered by EN 10088-3:2005. ASTM, EN or other standards may cover products sold. It is reasonable to expect specifications in these standards to be similar but not necessarily identical to those given in this datasheet.
Stainless steel types1.4301 and 1.4307 are also known as grades 304 and 304L respectively. Type 304 is the most versatile and widely used stainless steel. It is still sometimes referred to by its old name 18/8 which is derived from the nominal composition of type 304 being 18% chromium and 8% nickel.
Type 304 stainless steel is an austenitic grade that can be severely deep drawn. This property has resulted in 304 being the dominant grade used in applications like sinks and saucepans.
Type 304L is the low carbon version of 304. It is used in heavy gauge components for improved weldability. Some products such as plate and pipe may be available as “dual certified” material that meets the criteria for both 304 and 304L.
304H, a high carbon content variant, is also available for use at high or low temperatures.
Property data given in this document is typical for bar products covered by EN 10269:2013. ASTM, EN or other standards may cover products sold. It is reasonable to expect specifications in these standards to be similar but not necessarily identical to those given in this datasheet.
Stainless steel types 1.4401 and 1.4404 are also known as grades 316 and 316L respectively. Grade 316 is an austenitic grade second only to 304 in commercial importance.
316 stainless steel contains an addition of molybdenum that gives it improved corrosion resistance. This is particularly apparent for pitting and crevice corrosion in chloride environments.
316L, the low carbon version of 316 stainless steel, is immune to grain boundary carbide precipitation (sensitisation). This makes it suited to use in heavy gauge (over about 6mm) welded components.
For elevated temperature applications the high carbon variant, 316H stainless steel and the stabilised grade 316Ti stainless steel should be employed.
The austenitic structure of 316 stainless steel gives excellent toughness, even at cryogenic temperatures.
Property data given in this document is typical for bar and section products covered by EN 10088-3:2005. ASTM, EN or other standards may cover all products sold. It is reasonable to expect specifications in these standards to be similar but not necessarily identical to those given in this datasheet.
Stainless steel grade 316Ti contains a small amount of titanium. Titanium content is typically only around 0.5%. The titanium atoms stabilise the structure of the 316 at temperatures over 800°C. This prevents carbide precipitation at the grain boundaries and protects the metal from corrosion. The main advantage of 316Ti is that it can be held at higher temperatures for a longer period without sensitisation (precipitation) occurring. 316Ti retains physical and mechanical properties similar to standard grades of 316.
|Chemical Element||% Present|
|Carbon (C)||0.0 - 0.03|
|Chromium (Cr)||21.00 - 23.00|
|Manganese (Mn)||0.0 - 2.00|
|Silicon (Si)||0.0 - 1.00|
|Phosphorous (P)||0.0 - 0.03|
|Sulphur (S)||0.0 - 0.02|
|Nickel (Ni)||4.50 - 6.50|
|Nitrogen (N)||0.10 - 0.22|
|Molybdenum (Mo)||2.50 - 3.50|
|Thermal Expansion||13.7 x10^-6 /K|
|Modulus of Elasticity||200 GPa|
|Thermal Conductivity||19.0 W/m.K|
|Electrical Resistivity||0.085 x10^-6 Ω .m|
|Proof Stress||450 Min MPa|
|Tensile Strength||650 to 880 MPa|
|Elongation A50 mm||25 Min %|
|Hardness Brinell||270 Max HB|
Grade 1.4462/2205 is similar to but may not be a direct equivalent:
Duplex stainless steels are typically used in:
Duplex stainless steels are extremely corrosion resistant. They have high resistance to intergranular corrosion. Even in chloride and sulphide environments, duplex stainless steels exhibit very high resistance to stress corrosion cracking.
The super duplex grades are even more resistant to corrosion.
The high chromium content of duplex stainless steels that protects against corrosion, causes embrittlement at temperatures over about 300°C.
At low temperatures duplex stainless steels have better ductility than the ferritic and martensitic grades. Duplex grades can readily be used down to at least -50°C.
Fabrication of all stainless steels should be done only with tools dedicated to stainless steel materials. Tooling and work surfaces must be thoroughly cleaned before use. These precautions are necessary to avoid cross contamination of stainless steel by easily corroded metals that may discolour the surface of the fabricated product.
Although machinable, the high strengths of duplex stainless steels makes machining difficult. As an example, machining of 2205 is around 20% slower than for 304.
Machining can be enhanced by using the following rules:
Duplex stainless steels have good weldability. All standard welding processes can be used. They are not quite as easily welded as the austenitic grades but low thermal expansion in duplex grades reduces distortion and residual stresses after welding. The recommended filler material for 2205 stainless steel is 2209.
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